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Bangladesh is divided into eight administrative divisions,    each named after their respective divisional headquarters: Divisions are subdivided into districts zila.
There are 64 districts in Bangladesh, each further subdivided into upazila subdistricts or thana. The area within each police station, except for those in metropolitan areas, is divided into several unions , with each union consisting of multiple villages.
In the metropolitan areas, police stations are divided into wards, which are further divided into mahallas. There are no elected officials at the divisional or district levels, and the administration is composed only of government officials.
Direct elections are held in each union or ward for a chairperson and a number of members. In , a parliamentary act was passed to reserve three seats out of 12 in every union for female candidates.
Natural calamities, such as floods , tropical cyclones , tornadoes , and tidal bores occur almost every year,  combined with the effects of deforestation , soil degradation and erosion.
The cyclones of and were particularly devastating, the latter killing some , people. In September , Bangladesh saw the most severe flooding in modern world history.
Effectively, two-thirds of the country was underwater. The severity of the flooding was attributed to unusually high monsoon rains, the shedding of equally unusually large amounts of melt water from the Himalayas , and the widespread cutting down of trees that would have intercepted rain water for firewood or animal husbandry.
Bangladesh is now widely recognised to be one of the countries most vulnerable to climate change. Natural hazards that come from increased rainfall, rising sea levels, and tropical cyclones are expected to increase as climate changes, each seriously affecting agriculture, water and food security, human health, and shelter.
There is evidence that earthquakes pose a threat to the country and that plate tectonics have caused rivers to shift course suddenly and dramatically.
Bangladeshi water is frequently contaminated with arsenic because of the high arsenic content of the soil—up to 77 million people are exposed to toxic arsenic from drinking water.
Bangladesh is located in the Indomalaya ecozone. Its ecology includes a long sea coastline, numerous rivers and tributaries , lakes, wetlands , evergreen forests, semi evergreen forests, hill forests, moist deciduous forests , freshwater swamp forests and flat land with tall grass.
The Bangladesh Plain is famous for its fertile alluvial soil which supports extensive cultivation. The country is dominated by lush vegetation, with villages often buried in groves of mango , jackfruit , bamboo , betel nut , coconut and date palm.
Water lilies and lotuses grow vividly during the monsoon season. The country has 50 wildlife sanctuaries. It is divided into three protected sanctuaries—the South , East and West zones.
The northeastern Sylhet region is home to haor wetlands, which is a unique ecosystem. It also includes tropical and subtropical coniferous forests , a freshwater swamp forest and mixed deciduous forests.
The southeastern Chittagong region covers evergreen and semi evergreen hilly jungles. Central Bangladesh includes the plainland Sal forest running along the districts of Gazipur, Tangail and Mymensingh.
Bangladesh has an abundance of wildlife in its forests, marshes, woodlands and hills. The Chital deer are widely seen in southwestern woodlands.
Other animals include the black giant squirrel , capped langur , Bengal fox , sambar deer , jungle cat , king cobra , wild boar , mongooses , pangolins , pythons and water monitors.
Bangladesh has one of the largest population of Irrawaddy dolphins and Ganges dolphins. A census found 6, Irrawaddy dolphins inhabiting the littoral rivers of Bangladesh.
It also has species of birds. Several animals became extinct in Bangladesh during the last century, including the one horned and two horned rhinoceros and common peafowl.
The human population is concentrated in urban areas, hence limiting deforestation to a certain extent. Rapid urban growth has threatened natural habitats.
Although many areas are protected under law, a large portion of Bangladeshi wildlife is threatened by this growth.
The Bangladesh Environment Conservation Act was enacted in The government has designated several regions as Ecologically Critical Areas , including wetlands, forests and rivers.
The Sundarbans Tiger Project and the Bangladesh Bear Project are among the key initiatives to strengthen conservation. The Constitution of Bangladesh established a unitary , Westminster -style parliamentary republic with universal suffrage.
A member of parliament supported by a parliamentary majority usually the chair of the largest party is the Prime Minister , the head of government and of the cabinet.
Bangladesh is governed by a member parliament, known as the Jatiyo Sangshad. Three hundred of its members are elected on a first past the post basis, and 50 seats are reserved for female nominees by political parties.
Although parliamentary elections are scheduled every five years, they have often been delayed by political crises, emergency rule or martial law.
The President of Bangladesh is the head of state. From to the presidency had executive powers, but it has been reduced to a largely-ceremonial role by the Twelfth Amendment to the constitution.
Since , the Bangladesh Nationalist Party BNP , and the Bangladesh Awami League , have been the two major political parties in Bangladesh and have engaged in bitter rivalries and skirmishes.
In , the Fifteenth Amendment mandated the "highest punishment" for usurpers. The Jatiyo Sangshad is restrained from holding no-confidence motions, floor crossing and free votes by Article 70 of the constitution.
Human-rights violations have increased due to the growing power of security forces—particularly the Rapid Action Battalion , which is accused of arbitrary arrests, summary executions and forced disappearances.
Marriage, divorce and inheritance are governed by Islamic , Hindu and Christian family law. The judiciary is often influenced by legal developments in the Commonwealth of Nations , such as the doctrine of legitimate expectation.
The courts have wide latitude in judicial review , and judicial precedent is supported by the Article of the constitution. The judiciary includes district and metropolitan courts, which are divided into civil and criminal courts.
Due to a shortage of judges, the judiciary has a large backlog. The Bangladesh Judicial Service Commission is an independent body responsible for judicial appointments, salaries and discipline.
In the army strength was around ,, including reservists,  the Air Force 22, and the Navy 24, The Bangladesh Navy has the third-largest fleet after India and Thailand of countries dependent on the Bay of Bengal , including guided-missile frigates , submarines , cutters and aircraft.
The Bangladesh Air Force is equipped with several Russian multi-role fighter jets. Ties between the Bangladeshi and the Indian military have increased, with high-level visits by the military chiefs of both countries.
The first major intergovernmental organization joined by Bangladesh was the Commonwealth of Nations in Bangladesh relies on multilateral diplomacy in the World Trade Organization.
In addition to membership in the Commonwealth and the United Nations, Bangladesh pioneered regional cooperation in South Asia. Bangladesh is a founding member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation SAARC , an organization designed to strengthen relations and promote economic and cultural growth among its members.
It has hosted the summit of OIC foreign ministers, which addresses issues, conflicts and disputes affecting Muslim-majority countries.
Bangladesh is a founding member of the Developing 8 Countries , a bloc of eight Muslim-majority republics. The United States is a major economic and security partner , including its largest export market and foreign investor.
Seventy-six percent of Bangladeshis viewed the United States favorably in , one of the highest ratings among Asian countries.
Relations with other countries are generally positive. Shared democratic values ease relations with Western countries, and similar economic concerns forge ties to other developing countries.
Despite poor working conditions and war affecting overseas Bangladeshi workers , relations with Middle Eastern countries are friendly and bounded by religion and culture; more than a million Bangladeshis are employed in the region.
In , the king of Saudi Arabia called Bangladesh "one of the most important Muslim countries". In , major Indian newspapers called Bangladesh a "trusted friend".
The countries are forging regional economic and infrastructure projects, such as a regional motor-vehicle agreement in eastern South Asia and a coastal shipping agreement in the Bay of Bengal.
Indo-Bangladesh relations have a shared cultural heritage and democratic values and a history of support for Bangladeshi independence. Despite political goodwill, border killings of Bangladeshi civilians and the lack of a comprehensive water-sharing agreement for 54 trans-boundary rivers are major issues.
China and Bangladesh established bilateral relations in which have significantly strengthened, and the country is considered a cost-effective source of arms for the Bangladeshi military.
The neighbouring country of Myanmar was one of first countries to recognize Bangladesh. In , the countries came to terms at the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea over maritime disputes in the Bay of Bengal.
The parliament, government and civil society of Bangladesh have been at the forefront of international criticism against Myanmar for military operations against the Rohingya, which the United Nations has described as ethnic cleansing.
Although Bangladeshi and Pakistani businesses have invested in each other, diplomatic relations are strained because of Pakistani denial of the Bangladesh genocide.
Bangladeshi aid agencies work in many developing countries. Bangladeshi foreign policy is influenced by the principle of "friendship to all and malice to none", first articulated by Bengali statesman H.
However, government and security forces have flouted constitutional principles and have been accused of human rights abuses.
The United Nations is concerned about government "measures that restrict freedom of expression and democratic space". Bangladeshi security forces, particularly the Rapid Action Battalion RAB , have received international condemnation for human-rights abuses including enforced disappearances , torture and extrajudicial killings.
Over 1, people have been said to have been victims of extrajudicial killings by RAB since its inception under the last Bangladesh Nationalist Party government.
Secularism is protected by the constitution of Bangladesh , and religious parties are barred from contesting elections; however, the government is accused of courting religious extremist groups.
The Hindu and Buddhist communities have experienced religious violence from Islamic groups, notably the Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami and its student wing Shibir.
Islamic far-right candidates peaked at 12 percent of the vote in , falling to four percent in According to the Global Slavery Index, an estimated 1,, people are enslaved in modern-day Bangladesh, or 0.
Bangladesh, a developing country with a market-based mixed economy , is one of the Next Eleven emerging markets. During its first five years of independence Bangladesh adopted socialist policies.
In , finance minister Saifur Rahman introduced a programme of economic liberalization. The Bangladeshi private sector has rapidly expanded, with a number of conglomerates driving the economy.
Major industries include textiles, pharmaceuticals , shipbuilding, steel, electronics, energy, construction materials, chemicals, ceramics, food processing and leather goods.
Export-oriented industrialization has increased, with fiscal year —15 exports increasing by 3. According to the World Bank , poor governance, corruption and weak public institutions are also major challenges.
Agriculture is the largest sector of the economy, making up More Bangladeshis earn their living from agriculture than from any other sector.
The country is among the top producers of rice fourth , potatoes seventh , tropical fruits sixth , jute second , and farmed fish fifth.
Major gas fields are located in the northeastern particularly Sylhet and southern including Barisal and Chittagong regions.
PetroBangla is the national energy company. Jute exports remain significant, although the global jute trade has shrunk considerably since its World War II peak.
The pharmaceutical industry meets 97 percent of domestic demand, and exports to many countries. Steel is concentrated in the port city of Chittagong, and the ceramics industry is prominent in international trade.
Food processing is a major sector, with local brands such as PRAN increasing their international market share. The electronics industry is growing rapidly, particularly the Walton Group.
Microfinance was pioneered in Bangladesh by Muhammad Yunus. Transport is a major sector of the economy. Aviation has grown rapidly, and includes the flag carrier Biman Bangladesh Airlines and other privately owned airlines.
Bangladesh has a number of airports: The busiest, Shahjalal International Airport connects Dhaka with major destinations.
Bangladesh has a 2,kilometre 1,mile rail network operated by state-owned Bangladesh Railway. It has one of the largest inland waterway networks in the world,  with 8, kilometres 5, miles of navigable waters.
Bangladesh has three seaports and 22 river ports. Bangladesh had an installed electrical capacity of 10, MW in January Bangladesh has planned to import hydropower from Bhutan and Nepal.
Another challenge is low cost recovery due to low tariffs and poor economic efficiency , especially in urban areas where water revenue does not cover operating costs.
An estimated 56 percent of the population had access to adequate sanitation facilities in Activities for tourists include angling , water skiing , river cruising, hiking, rowing , yachting , and sea bathing.
Estimates of the Bangladeshi population vary, but UN data suggests ,, million. In , its population was 44 million. Its total fertility rate is now 2.
The population is relatively young, with 34 percent aged 15 or younger and five percent 65 or older. Life expectancy at birth was estimated at 70 years in Bengalis are 98 percent of the population.
The Chittagong Hill Tracts region experienced unrest and an insurgency from to in an autonomy movement by its indigenous people. Although a peace accord was signed in , the region remains militarized.
Bangladesh is home to a significant Ismaili community. Stranded Pakistanis were given citizenship by the Supreme Court in There are 12 city corporations which hold mayoral elections: Mayors are elected for five-year terms.
Altogether there are urban centres in Bangladesh among which 43 cities have a population of more than More than 98 percent of people in Bangladesh speak Bengali, sometimes called Bangla, as their native language.
Pakistani Biharis , stranded since and living in Bangladeshi camps, speak Urdu. Bengali is the official language.
Although laws were historically written in English, they were not translated into Bengali until Islam is the largest and the official state religion of Bangladesh,   followed by About four percent are non-denominational Muslims.
The Ijtema is the second-largest Muslim congregation in the world, after the Hajj. Hinduism is followed by Despite their dwindling numbers, Hindus are the second-largest religious community after the Muslims in Dhaka.
Buddhism is the third-largest religion, at 0. Bangladeshi Buddhists are concentrated among ethnic groups in the Chittagong Hill Tracts particularly the Chakma, Marma and Tanchangya peoples , and coastal Chittagong is home to a large number of Bengali Buddhists.
Christianity is the fourth-largest religion, at 0. The Constitution of Bangladesh declares Islam the state religion, but bans religion-based politics.
It proclaims equal recognition of Hindus, Buddhists, Christians and people of all faiths. Bangladesh has a low literacy rate , which was estimated at In the tertiary-education sector, the Bangladeshi government funds over 15 state universities through the University Grants Commission.
The education system is divided into five levels: Students who pass the PEC examination proceed to four years of secondary or matriculation training, culminating in the SSC examination.
Students who pass this examination proceed to two years of secondary education, culminating in the SSC examination. Students who pass this examination proceed to two years of higher-secondary education, culminating in the Higher Secondary School Certificate HSC examination.
Education is primarily in Bengali, but English is commonly taught and used. Many Muslim families send their children to part-time courses or full-time religious education in Bengali and Arabic in madrasas.
Article 17 of the Bangladesh Constitution provides that all children between the ages of six and ten years receive a basic education free of charge.
Universities in Bangladesh are of three general types: Bangladesh has 34 public, 64 private and two international universities ; Bangladesh National University has the largest enrollment, and the University of Dhaka established in is the oldest.
University of Chittagong established in is the largest University Campus: Rural, 2, acres 8. Asian University for Women in Chittagong is the preeminent South Asian liberal-arts university for women, representing 14 Asian countries; its faculty hails from notable academic institutions in North America, Europe, Asia, Australia and the Middle East.
The NITER is a specialized public-private partnership institute which provides higher education in textile engineering. Medical education is provided by 29 government and private medical colleges.
All medical colleges are affiliated with the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. According to education minister Nurul Islam Nahid , 27, madrasas and technical and vocational institutions were enlisted for the facility.
Health and education levels remain relatively low, although they have improved as poverty levels have decreased. In rural areas, village doctors with little or no formal training constitute 62 percent of healthcare providers practising "modern medicine"; formally-trained providers make up four percent of the total health workforce.
A Future Health Systems survey indicated significant deficiencies in the treatment practices of village doctors, with widespread harmful and inappropriate drug prescribing.
A study of 1, households in rural Bangladesh found that direct payments to formal and informal healthcare providers and indirect costs loss of earnings because of illness associated with illness were deterrents to accessing healthcare from qualified providers.
According to a World Bank report, healthcare spending was 3. Malnutrition has been a persistent problem in Bangladesh, with the World Bank ranking the country first in the number of malnourished children worldwide.
The recorded history of art in Bangladesh can be traced to the 3rd century BCE, when terracotta sculptures were made in the region.
In classical antiquity, a notable school of sculptural Hindu, Jain and Buddhist art developed in the Pala Empire and the Sena dynasty.
Islamic art evolved since the 14th century. The architecture of the Bengal Sultanate saw a distinct style of domed mosques with complex niche pillars that had no minarets.
Jamdani motifs were similar to Iranian textile art buta motifs and Western textile art paisley. The Jamdani weavers in Dhaka received imperial patronage.
Pottery is widely used in Bengali culture. The modern art movement in Bangladesh took shape during the s, particularly with the pioneering works of Zainul Abedin.
East Bengal developed its own modernist painting and sculpture traditions, which were distinct from the art movements in West Bengal.
The Art Institute Dhaka has been an important center for visual art in the region. The Chobi Mela is the largest photography festival in Asia.
Bengali developed from Sanskrit and Magadhi Prakrit in the 11th century. Bengali literature is a millennium-old tradition; the Charyapada are the earliest examples of Bengali poetry.
Sufi spiritualism inspired many Bengali Muslim writers. Syed Alaol was a noted secular poet and translator.
The Chandidas are an example of the Bangladeshi folk literature that developed during the Middle Ages. The Bengal Renaissance shaped the emergence of modern Bengali literature, including novels, short stories and science fiction.
Begum Rokeya was a pioneer of Bengali writing in English , with her early of work of feminist science fiction.
The writer Syed Mujtaba Ali is noted for his cosmopolitan Bengali worldview. Jasimuddin was a renowned pastoral poet. Shamsur Rahman was the poet laureate of Bangladesh for many years.
Al Mahmud is considered one of the greatest Bengali poets to have emerged in the 20th century. Anis Ahmed and Farah Ghuznavi are acclaimed for their short stories.
Although, as of [update] , several women occupied major political office in Bangladesh, its women continue to live under a patriarchal social regime where violence is common.
Bengal has a long history of feminist activism dating back to the 19th century. Agriculture, social services, healthcare and education are also major occupations for Bangladeshi women, while their employment in white collar positions has steadily increased.
The architectural traditions of Bangladesh have a 2,year-old heritage. Islamic architecture began developing under the Bengal Sultanate, when local terracotta styles influenced medieval mosque construction.
The Adina Mosque of united Bengal was the largest mosque built on the Indian subcontinent. The Sixty Dome Mosque was the largest medieval mosque built in Bangladesh, and is a fine example of Turkic-Bengali architecture.
The Mughal style replaced indigenous architecture when Bengal became a province of the Mughal Empire and influenced the development of urban housing.
The Kantajew Temple and Dhakeshwari Temple are excellent examples of late medieval Hindu temple architecture. Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture , based on Indo-Islamic styles, flourished during the British period.
Bengali vernacular architecture is noted for pioneering the bungalow. Bangladeshi villages consist of thatched roofed houses made of natural materials like mud , straw , wood and bamboo.
In modern times, village bungalows are increasingly made of tin. Muzharul Islam was the pioneer of Bangladeshi modern architecture. His varied works set the course of modern architectural practice in the country.
In more recent times, award-winning architects like Rafiq Azam have set the course of contemporary architecture by adopting influences from the works of Islam and Kahn.
Theatre in Bangladesh includes various forms with a history dating back to the 4th century CE. The dance traditions of Bangladesh include indigenous tribal and Bengali dance forms, as well as classical Indian dances , including the Kathak , Odissi and Manipuri dances.
Folk music is accompanied by a one-stringed instrument known as the ektara. Other instruments include the dotara , dhol , flute, and tabla.
Bengali classical music includes Tagore songs and Nazrul geeti. Bangladesh has a rich tradition of Indian classical music , which uses instruments like the sitar , tabla, sarod and santoor.
The Nakshi Kantha is a centuries-old embroidery tradition for quilts , said to be indigenous to eastern Bengal i.
The sari is the national dress for Bangladeshi women. The shalwar kameez is also widely worn by Bangladeshi women. In urban areas some women can be seen in western clothing.
The kurta and sherwani are the national dress of Bangladeshi men; the lungi and dhoti are worn by them in informal settings.
The retailer Aarong is one of the most successful ethnic wear brands in South Asia. The development of the Bangladesh textile industry, which supplies leading international brands, has promoted the production and retail of modern Western attire locally, with the country now having a number of expanding local brands like Westecs and Yellow.
White rice is the staple of Bangladeshi cuisine, along with many vegetables and lentils. Rice preparations also include Bengali biryanis , pulaos , and khichuris.
Mustard sauce, ghee , sunflower oil and fruit chutneys are widely used in Bangladeshi cooking. Fish is the main source of protein in Bengali cuisine.
The Hilsa is the national fish and immensely popular across Bangladesh. Other kinds of fish eaten include rohu , butterfish , catfish, tilapia and barramundi.
Fish eggs are a gourmet delicacy. Seafood holds an important place in Bengali cuisine, especially lobsters , shrimps and dried fish. Meat consumption includes chicken, beef, mutton , venison , duck and squab.
In Chittagong, Mezban feasts are a popular tradition featuring the serving of hot beef curry. In Sylhet, the shatkora lemons are used to marinate dishes.
In the tribal Hill Tracts, bamboo shoot cooking is prevalent. Pithas are traditional boiled desserts made with rice or fruits.
Halwa is served during religious festivities. Naan , paratha , luchi and bakarkhani are the main local breads. Black tea is offered to guests as a gesture of welcome.
Kebabs are widely popular across Bangladesh, particularly seekh kebabs , chicken tikka and shashliks. Bangladesh shares its culinary heritage with the neighboring Indian state of West Bengal.
The two regions have several differences, however. In Muslim-majority Bangladesh, meat consumption is greater; whereas in Hindu-majority West Bengal, vegetarianism is more prevalent.
The Bangladeshi diaspora dominates the South Asian restaurant industry in many Western countries, particularly in the United Kingdom. Pohela Boishakh , the Bengali new year, is the major festival of Bengali culture and sees widespread festivities.
Of the major holidays celebrated in Bangladesh, only Pohela Boishakh comes without any preexisting expectations specific religious identity, culture of gift-giving, etc.
Unlike holidays like Eid al-Fitr , where dressing up in lavish clothes has become a norm, or Christmas where exchanging gifts has become an integral part of the holiday, Pohela Boishakh is really about celebrating the simpler, rural roots of the Bengal.
Other cultural festivals include Nabonno , and Poush Parbon both of which are Bengali harvest festivals.
These occasions are observed with public ceremonies, parades, rallies by citizens, political speeches, fairs, concerts, and various other public and private events, celebrating the history and traditions of Bangladesh.
TV and radio stations broadcast special programs and patriotic songs, and many schools and colleges organise fairs, festivals, and concerts that draw the participation of citizens from all levels of Bangladeshi society.
Cricket is one of the most popular sports in Bangladesh, followed by football. The national cricket team participated in their first Cricket World Cup in , and the following year was granted elite Test cricket status.
They have however struggled, recording only ten test match victories: They reached the quarter-final of the Cricket World Cup.
In July , they celebrated their first-ever win over England in England. Bangladesh hosted the Asia Cup on four occasions in , , , and However, it was the first time Bangladesh had advanced to the final of any top-class international cricket tournament.
They reached the final again at the Asia Cup and Asia Cup. They participated at the Asian Games in Guangzhou, defeating Afghanistan to claim their Gold Medal in the first-ever cricket tournament held in the Asian Games.
Bangladeshi cricketer Sakib Al Hasan is No. Kabaddi —very popular in Bangladesh—is the national game. The National Sports Council regulates 42 different sporting federations.
Among them, Niaz Murshed was the first grandmaster in South Asia. In another achievement, Margarita Mamun , a Russian rhythmic gymnast of Bangladeshi origin, won gold medal in Summer Olympics and became world champion in the years and The Bangladeshi press is diverse, outspoken and privately owned.
Over newspapers are published in the country. Bangladesh Betar is the state-run radio service. Bengali broadcasts from Voice of America are also very popular.
Bangladesh Television BTV is the state-owned television network. There more than 20 privately owned television networks, including several news channels.
Freedom of the media remains a major concern, due to government attempts at censorship and the harassment of journalists. The cinema of Bangladesh dates back to , when films began screening at the Crown Theatre in Dhaka.
The first bioscope on the subcontinent was established in Dhaka that year. The Dhaka Nawab Family patronized the production of several silent films in the s and 30s.
During the s, 25—30 films were produced annually in Dhaka. By the s, Bangladesh produced 80— films a year.
While the Bangladeshi film industry has achieved limited commercial success, the country has produced notable independent filmmakers.
Zahir Raihan was a prominent documentary-maker who was assassinated in Bangladesh have very active film society culture. Now around 40 Film Society active in all over Bangladesh.
Federation of Film Societies of Bangladesh is the parent organization of the film society movement of Bangladesh. The Varendra Research Museum is the oldest museum in Bangladesh.
It houses important collections from both the pre-Islamic and Islamic periods, including the sculptures of the Pala-Sena School of Art and the Indus Valley Civilization; as well as Sanskrit, Arabic and Persian manuscripts and inscriptions.
The Ahsan Manzil, the former residence of the Nawab of Dhaka, is a national museum housing collections from the British Raj.
The Tajhat Palace Museum preserves artifacts of the rich cultural heritage of North Bengal, including Hindu-Buddhist sculptures and Islamic manuscripts.
The Mymensingh Museum houses the personal antique collections of Bengali aristocrats in central Bengal. The Ethnological Museum of Chittagong showcases the lifestyle of various tribes in Bangladesh.
The Liberation War Museum documents the Bangladeshi struggle for independence and the genocide. In ancient times, manuscripts were written on palm leaves, tree barks, parchment vellum and terracotta plates and preserved at monasteries known as viharas.
The Hussain Shahi dynasty established royal libraries during the Bengal Sultanate. Libraries were established in each district of Bengal by the zamindar gentry during the Bengal Renaissance in the 19th century.
The trend of establishing libraries continued until the beginning of World War II. The Great Bengal Library Association was formed in The National Library of Bangladesh was established in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Bangladesh disambiguation. Country in South Asia. Government Seal of Bangladesh. Military coups in Bangladesh.
Popularly known as the "Battling Begums";  the two women have ruled Bangladesh as prime ministers since Administrative geography of Bangladesh.
Wildlife of Bangladesh and Fauna of Bangladesh. Foreign relations of Bangladesh. Human rights in Bangladesh. Economy of Bangladesh and List of companies of Bangladesh.
Energy in Bangladesh , Natural gas and petroleum in Bangladesh , Telecommunications in Bangladesh , and Water supply and sanitation in Bangladesh.
Science and technology in Bangladesh. Information technology in Bangladesh and Biotechnology and genetic engineering in Bangladesh.
Demographics of Bangladesh and Bengalis. Ethnic groups in Bangladesh. List of cities and towns in Bangladesh. Largest cities or towns in Bangladesh Population and Housing Census .
Religions in Bangladesh in  Religion Percent Muslim. Baitul Mukarram National Mosque. Culture of Bangladesh , Culture of Bengal , and Bengali renaissance.
Textile arts of Bangladesh and Muslin trade in Bengal. Bengali cuisine and Bangladeshi cuisine. Public holidays in Bangladesh and List of festivals in Bangladesh.
Media of Bangladesh and Cinema of Bangladesh. Museums in Bangladesh and List of libraries in Bangladesh. Retrieved 1 February National Web Portal of Bangladesh.
Retrieved 13 February US department of States. Retrieved 11 September Retrieved 10 September Census — Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics.
World Economic Outlook Database. Retrieved 3 October Retrieved 15 September Retrieved 19 September Aging and Adult Development in the Developing World: Applying Western Theories and Concepts.
Retrieved 29 October Archived from the original on 10 October The Breakup of Pakistan —". Archived from the original on 4 September Ancient Indian History and Civilization.
Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India. Retrieved 1 December Historians believe that Bengal, the area comprising present-day Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal , was settled in about B.
Their homeland bore various titles that reflected earlier tribal names, such as Vanga, Banga, Bangala, Bangal, and Bengal.
Scroll Paintings of Bengal: Art in the Village. In Heitzman, James; Worden, Robert. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress.
The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, — University of California Press. Politics, Economy and Civil Society. Volume Three — South Asia.
Bangladesh Bank has issued a new series of banknotes, phasing out the older designs for new, more secure ones.
The folder of the banknote for the 40th anniversary of the independence of Bangladesh had a spelling error of the name of the country. It was inserted as Bangldesh instead of Bangladesh.
To help offset this phenomenon, Bangladesh first used the compensatory financing facility of the International Monetary Fund in fiscal year By fiscal year , however, the government revised its stance, declaring a devaluation of the taka by 56 percent and agreeing to establishing the Bangladesh Aid Group by the World Bank.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the Japanese given name, see Taka given name. For the Filipino paper mache, see Taka paper mache.
For other uses, see Taka disambiguation. History of the taka. Retrieved 17 January In Heitzman, James; Worden, Robert.
Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 2 February Retrieved 3 January Standard Catalog of World Coins: Standard Catalog of World Paper Money: Bruce II and Neil Shafer editors 7th ed.
Currencies named taka or similar. Tibetan tangka Nepalese tanka Barari tanka Gujarati tanka Pakistani rupee and taka. Pala Kamboja Sena Sultanates: Portuguese Bengala British Bengal: Provisional Government Genocide Rape Timeline.
Famine of Military coups Political crisis in —08 Bangladesh Rifles revolt. Constituencies Speaker Local government: Post Telecommunications Real estate Water supply and sanitation Transport: Airports Airlines Railway Roads Ports.
Retrieved from " https: EngvarB from February Use dmy dates from February Articles containing Bengali-language text Wikipedia articles needing clarification from April Views Read Edit View history.